Component 1 – institutional
The institutional component of the project is managed by the City of Torino and its service provider, Amiat, together with the YCDC-PCCD. It aims at achieving the ER1. This component gathers four work packages (WP):
- WP 1.1: participatory drafting of recommendations and suggestions on law/bylaw. The aim of this WP is to support the PCCD in the identification of flaws in the present legal framework, and to suggest a set of principles already acquired by the Italian/EU legislation and Torino’s bylaw. A specific focus will be on the public-private partnership (PPP) and the industrial waste (IW). A first mission of Torino’s officer in Yangon is planned in order to analyse the existing legal and organizational framework, identify the flaws, and list the areas to work on. The second step is the extrapolation from the Italian/EU legislation and from Torino’s bylaw of the principles, related to the areas identified during the field survey, which can be adapted in Myanmar/Yangon context. The second mission of Torino’s expert aims at presenting the suggestions and discussing with PCCD officers the results of the work.
- WP 1.2: participatory drafting of guidelines to improve existing DS management. The aim of this WP is to help decreasing the environmental impact of the dumping sites and to improve safety conditions of workers. A first mission of Amiat technical expert in Yangon is planned in order to analyse the existing management of DSs and the SWM flow, including IW (through inspections, interviews, and a final workshop). Then, the outcomes of the field analysis are detailed and translated in draft guidelines to improve SWM flows and DS management, considering Italian best practices. During the second mission in Yangon, the guidelines are discussed with PCCD officers and, where possible, tested. During a final follow up mission, the results will be checked, the problems discussed, and the guidelines finalized.
- WP 1.3: participatory drafing of guidelines to detail existing long term strategy. This WP is scheduled after the conclusions of WP 1.1 and the drafting of the guidelines of WP 1.2. YC does not have any formalized strategy for the SWM at the moment. The Japanese Cooperation (JICA) at the time of the project preparation was working together with the YCDC to finalize the Master Plan of the city from nowadays up to 2040 (the plan is now completed). The aim of this WP is to support the planning of YC SWM focusing on the short-term. A first mission of Amiat technical expert in Yangon is planned in order to highlight the most important topics to be translated into guidelines for short-term strategies, taking into account the progress of the Master Plan and the results of WP 1.1. Then, the outcomes of the field analysis are detailed and translated in draft guidelines to detail SWM strategy in YC, considering Italian best practices. The draft guidelines are verified and discussed with PCCD officers during a second mission. After a period of testing realized by the PCCD, a follow up mission will be accomplished to check the results, discuss the problems and finalize the guidelines.
- WP 1.4: visits in Torino of key PCCD officers to review best practices on identified topics. The aim of this WP is to investigate directly in Torino the SWM system (technical organization, infrastructures, legal framework enforcement, PPP, control and authorization system). A group of PCCD officers moves to Torino twice: the first mission is focused on private/public responsibilities, and control/authorization system (it is also the follow up step of WP 1.1), the second mission is focused on planning, collection and treatment.
Component 2 – technological
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The technological component of the project is managed by Ithaca together with the YCDC-PCCD. It aims at achieving the ER2. This component gathers three work packages (WP):
- WP 2.1: analysis of the context and training on GIS basic concept. This WP includes the following sub-activities: (1) initial assessment at the beginning of the project: PCCD office management made limited use of the opportunities computer science offers, both for lack of resources and competences. Therefore, the first objective of WP2.1 is to support PCCD in hardware procurement, identification of DBMS/GIS software solutions (with a preference for OpenSource platform) and capacity building focused on PCCD data management needs. The initial assessment phase has also the objective to identify which data are currently used and possible information gaps in order to identify solutions to fill them; (2) training on GIS basic concepts for 10 PCCD officers: the training focuses on fundamentals about GIS data types and layer properties, coordinate reference systems, vector editing and analysis and map production. The training is based on the software solutions identified in the initial assessment and customized with exercise and examples related to PCCD activities (solid waste management).
- WP 2.2: design of database and forecasting model. PCCD uses but it is not in charge of the management of YCDC reference maps: PCCD refers to other YCDC Departments or Ministries to obtain maps. PCCD daily collects data about produced SW at township level and has information about SWM collection facilities and strategy at township. It is considered relevant for PCCD to have a tool for storing data, easily retrieve them, make analysis and extract reports. The proposal aims at providing the newly created GIS unit inside PCCD with a tool for efficiently store, manage, analyze and represent digital information and their spatial component, by means of designing and implement a dedicated Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). A handbook about SDI is expected to be provided to the PCCD data management unit at the end of the implementation phase: PCCD officers can refer to it to understand the content of tables and layers, together with the procedures for their updating, managing and analysis. For what concerns the design of the forecasting model tool, ITHACA operates in collaboration with experts from Turin. In particular the activity is getting inputs from the study in WP 1.3. and also be used in planning activity of the same WP. The forecasting model, based on the structure given by first activity, can potentially define the foreseen SW production at township level in relation to the expected population growth and socio-economic indexes. The tool is also expected to potentially get inputs concerning data format describing industrial zones from experts involved in WP 1.2, and eventually from key 3Rs points of pilot activities.
- WP 2.3: provision of basic equipment, training and technical assistance on data collection (ToT), management-digitalization, reporting and forecasting.The action is aimed to provide the PCCD Data Unit with SDI basic required hardware components, including a proper printer and satellite internet for proper communication with the partners and the web. The updating, maintenance and fruition of an SDI requires a knowledge that this activity is aimed to give to PCCD officers. This WP is aimed in particular at giving to PCCD the essential knowledge to be independent in SDI use and training people, at least on proper data collection, when the project ends. The WP, performed by ITHACA expert through an ad hoc mission in the country, includes the following sub-activities: (1) training on data input; (2) training on data management; (3) training on data analysis and representation; (4) final examination and SDI commitment. In the first activity ITHACA staff is in charge to train 10 people to correctly input SW production data at township level in the designed SDI (WP 2.2) and 5 additional people to use GPS devices to collect data about key-elements in SWM. The use of GPS devices is useful in the building of PCCD specific datasets of interest for SWM. ITHACA develops the activity through the Training of Trainers (ToT) methodology: after attending the course, trainees have to train other staff at township level, under the supervision of Ithaca staff. In the second activity, 10 people will are expected to be trained to geometrically edit features, geo-reference available raster maps, to digitize features from a raster map, to create, modify or delete the structure of data tables related to geometric features. In the third sub-activity 10 people are expected to be trained to use the forecasting tool developed in WP 2.2. They learn how to extract reports (both map and tables) about SWM and how to use spatial functions to query SDI data and how to represent the results of the analysis. A final examination is expected, to attest the acquisition of planned skills.
Component 3 – social
This component aims at increasing Community Awareness on best practices of Solid Waste Management (ER3) and is implemented by YCDC-PCCD and Cesvi, in close consultation with the other project partners.
The component is developed through four work packages (WPs). The picture shows how the four work packages are correlated within the component 3:
The value chain and market analysis on recycled materials aims at orienting a number of pilot initiatives to improve the quality of and diversify recycling practices in Yangon. The pilot projects are expected to be developed on the base of the interests and needs of those already involved in recycling and the PCCD, with reference to the financial sustainability of recycling practices. Before the project, in PCCD knowledge, no data were accessible on feasibility and profitability of 3Rs initiatives on a small scale in Yangon and the analysis on recycled materials is expected to fill this gap.
The analysis, which is developed in the form of a feasibility study, consists of the following activities:
- Development of the value chain and market analysis of the recycling materials according to the following criteria:
- Involve poor people in the implementation of pilot activities generating income;
- Improve working conditions of people involved in recycling;
- Increase awareness of population through implementation of demonstrative activities;
- Low hardware/equipment investment and maintenance requirements;
- Short term time for start up;
- Highest income generation opportunities – market demand;
- Coherence with SWM strategy of the project partners and the project objectives and procedures;
- Potential and interest of replicability.
- Development of a workplan based on the results of the analysis through a participatory workshop with the project partners.
The value chain and market analysis aims at:
- Understanding how the segregation process of recyclable materials is conducted in Yangon (identification of recycled / recyclable materials and their characteristics, with specific reference, as mentioned above, to paper and plastics; estimation of quantity produced and percentage on the total generated; who operates the segregation; where the segregation is conducted; what is the final destination of the recyclable material collected);
- Providing a description of the actors involved in the collection and segregation of recyclable materials and their working conditions;
- Defining formal and informal frameworks in place related to the segregation of recyclable materials;
- Describing the recycled materials and their market value along the chain from the collector to the exporter / re-user;
- Providing recommendations to improve the segregation and collection of recycled materials to reduce the quantity of waste processed in Yangon;
- Providing recommendations on what kind of pilot project regarding collection and re-use of recyclable products, with specific reference to paper and plastic, could be marketable and profitable.
Work Package 3.2: Awareness Campaigns on protection of the environment and SWM best practices
The project aims at strengthening civil society participation along any Solid Waste Management activity. At the time the proposal was developed, this involvement was missing because of an extensive unawareness on causes and consequences related to unsafe waste disposal. Civil society’s contribution is needed for changing behaviours, monitor the local actors in their actions, suggesting or standing against new strategies.
By conducting Awareness Campaigns on protection of the environment and Solid Waste Management best practices, the project aims also at better equipping PCCD with improved tools and methodologies to carry out awareness actions, in line with PCCD communication strategy. The target of the Awareness Campaigns is Yangon population with a special focus on schools and the local actors operating in activities related to Solid Waste Management in Hlaing Tha Yar, Tarmwe and Thingangyun Townships.
This Awareness Campaigns include the following activities:
- Production of information, education and communication material;
- PCCD Training of Trainers;
- School days;
- Community public days;
- Industrial Zone Committee sensitization;
- Radio campaigns.
The awareness activities are expected to be carried out by Cesvi in collaboration with PCCD.
Production of IEC material: main aspects and themes to be dealt include: industrial waste versus environmental degradation versus effects on human health; good 3Rs practices, in particular segregation of waste and correct methods of waste disposal, putting the accent also on the economic value of waste. Information, Education and Communication material of different typologies is expected to be produced for further distribution and as a resource for PCCD. Namely: pamphlets, posters/publicity advertisement, educational kits for school children, messages for visibility items, handbooks, radio spots and programs.
PCCD Training of Trainers [ToT]: ToT sessions for 20 trainers of PCCD, already in charge of awareness activities in schools and public places and normally provided by the Districts. Training sessions, organized by Cesvi will last 2 days and will be carried out once a year. The training focuses on communication/awareness tools, skills and methodologies as well as on the particular themes mentioned above. Participants to the training will be involved as main implementers of awareness initiatives in schools and public places. They will moreover contribute to the realization of the workshops for the industrial zones that will be organized by the project in order to address the particular aspects and issues linked to industrial waste management.
School days: School days will target a total of more than 4,000 primary and middle schools students in Hlaing Tha Yar, Tarmwe and Thingangyun Townships, using appropriate educational kits, simple tools, games and handbooks. Awareness methodologies are based on peer to peer communication (child to child) and on “child to parent” approach, with delivering of messages for the families of the directly targeted pupils. School teachers will also be involved in the events and will also act as agent of messages transmission. For each school two days are foreseen, performed in separate moments. The activity will be carried out with the support of community facilitators, selected by the same communities during the preparation phase and meeting with ward and township authorities and representatives. Community facilitators and school teachers will facilitate the distribution of questionnaires to the pupils, at the beginning and end of the awareness activities, in order to test the initial and final knowledge of the target group on the topics dealt, such as the proper disposal and 3Rs practices, health and environmental consequences of bad practices, economic value of waste.
Community public days: Community public days to raise awareness will be organized in each targeted township (1 day per township per year for three years). The scope of this activity is to improve the articulation of PCCD staff at township level in their sensitization activities already in place. During the preparation phase, Cesvi project staff and PCCD members will get in contact with ward authorities (responsible of delimited area of the township) in order to present the initiative, advocate for support and identify volunteers for the initiatives proposed. The open days will be organized by Cesvi in collaboration with PCCD. Activities to be carried out may include cleaning campaigns and the set up of info points in strategically chosen locations in the target townships. The info points will distribute leaflets and provide information on environmental issues and solid waste disposal practices, advertising also the recycling pilot projects promoted by the project. The project will support these events with the provision of basic equipment for the cleaning activities and Information, Education, Communication and Promotional material purposely produced.
Industrial Zone Committees [IZC] Sensitization: In the Industrial Zone of Hlaing Thar Yar, awareness on proper handling and reduction of industrial waste is considered particularly relevant. The project will organize a total of 3 workshops with the IZC of Hlaing Thar Yar, on the theme of industrial waste, environment and health. The workshops will be conducted by PCCD technicians and will be also an occasion to describe to the audience the outputs and documentation produced under the Institutional Component of the project, in particular for what is concerning strategic guidelines and procedure for industrial waste management.
Radio campaigns: The use of media will complete and integrate all the aspects of the awareness strategy. Regular radio broadcasting of sensitization messages on waste management best practices, environmental degradation and its effects on the population health, 3R best practices, and information about the initiatives undertaken by the project will be carried out during the three years. Content and type of radio messages will be designed by the communication consultant, taking into consideration the characteristics of the audience to be targeted. During three years, the project foresees the broadcasting of awareness messages and 15 programs with interviews to citizens of the target townships and project participants.
Work Package 3.3: Formation of pilot working groups, set up of support system (training and start up materials) for pilot project implementation on SWM
The pilot projects are based on the outcomes and findings of the feasibility study (Work Package 3.1) and consist of the following activities:
- Formation of pilot working groups;
- Participatory workshops with stakeholders to define the contents and methods of implementation;
- Provision of training, monitoring and start up materials to conformed groups.
Just after the completion of the feasibility study on value chain and market analysis on recycled materials and in parallel with the preparatory activities of the Awareness Campaigns, the project team identifies the target groups interested in the development of pilot 3Rs initiatives. Priority is given to those poor people already involved in 3Rs activities or other poor groups from the pilot townships interested by the implementation. The proposal is targeting the involvement of up to 100 people per each township.
Participatory workshops at township level are held by PCCD officers with the target groups, initially to determine the main contents and modalities of implementation of pilot ideas, instructing participants on the findings of the value chain and market analysis, lately to discuss the main issues during implementation and solve potential problems.
Pilot projects may include: (a) the production of green compost from urban wet waste, to be sold with support of PCCD, and (b) involving community groups in the proper separation of organic waste, to be purchased by the PCCD and used to produce compost in proximity of the dumping site.
The pilot groups conformed are then trained by a trainer expert on the topic, contracted ad hoc, who is also responsible of the initial monitoring and technical support of the groups. PCCD staff at township level may also take part to the training and further facilitate monitoring their activities. PCCD staff is supposed to be the main actor in the support of the community groups for the achievement of the common objectives. Training are conceived as very practical, based on the learning by doing techniques, and supported by simple handbooks summarizing principles and methods of proper implementation, such as proper attention for health and hygiene. The project provides to the working groups also the equipment and tools necessary for the start up of the activities.
Work Package 3.4: Peer workshop and final conference with townships members and relevant stakeholders
The peer workshop and final conference with townships members and relevant stakeholders aim at the dissemination of the best practices and the multiplication of effects of its successful experiences and lessons learnt.
The peer workshops will provide room to exchange the experiences of implementation among the different actors involved in the project, identifying the best practices and the lessons learnt. The audience includes the representatives of the pilot groups, of the PCCD officers and other community representatives eventually involved. The workshops are hold by the PCCD at township level and the findings of the workshop will be disseminated in the form of a report to the other relevant stakeholders of the project.
The final conference, held by Cesvi and PCCD in Yangon is meant as a final moment to expose the main project findings and disseminate the main outputs and studies within the Environment Sector, Civil Society and National and Local Government in Myanmar.
Special focus will be given to:
- The framework for cooperation between the European Union and Myanmar;
- Importance of environmental issues and role of local authorities in these ever growing challenges;
- Reasons for cooperation between the partners involved in the project;
- Results and outputs achieved;
- Project Impact and long-lasting results;
Such conference will also be an occasion of visibility for the action and the European Union support, as well as for lobbying with relevant stakeholders to promote replication and continuation of the best practices identified.